of the body containing the internal organs. Lies between the pelvis
and the chest cavity.
means to get into the body. Accesses to the bloodstream for
hemodialysis are fistulas, grafts, catheter, etc. Access to the
peritoneal cavity for peritoneal dialysis is a catheter.
|| Rapidly developing; severe; short duration.
|| Sudden and severe decrease in kidney function that is short term.
to walk; movable.
condition in which there is a reduction of red blood cells.
|| Medication used to kill bacteria and fight infection.
|| Medication that delays or stops the clotting of blood such as
Coumadin (or heparin).
|| Medication that lowers blood pressure.
|| Chemical that stops growth and reproduction of bacteria and viruses,
but doesn’t necessarily destroy them as a disinfectant would.
tube that carries blood away from the body into the dialyzer.
|| Hardening of the arteries.
blood vessel carrying blood away form the heart to other parts of
| Artificial kidney
filtering device used with an artificial kidney machine to remove
excess fluid and waste products from the body. Also known as
“dialyzer” and “hemodialyzer.”
| Artificial kidney machine
machine that supports and monitors the functioning of the artificial
kidney (dialyzer). Also called “hemodialysis machine.”
|| Single cell organisms, capable of rapid reproduction. They are
present everywhere; some are harmless, others are known to produce
|| Measurement of certain chemicals in the blood.
dialysis, the rate at which the patient’s blood is pumped through
the artificial kidney.
|| Pressure blood exerts on the walls of the blood vessels. This is
expressed in two numbers, such as 120/80. The systolic (top) number
is the pressure when the heart is contracting. The diastolic
(bottom) number is the pressure when the heart is at rest.
pump that moves blood from the patient’s access through the blood
tubing an artificial kidney and back to the patient without damage
to the blood cells.
|| Sound produced by the blood flowing though a graft, fistula, or
(blood urea nitrogen)
|| Combination of waste products (nitrogen and urea) in the blood
normally excreted by the kidneys.
| Cadaver donor
|| Someone who has died and whose kidneys have been donated for
|| Element found in the body. Important to bone growth and formation,
blood clotting, nerve and muscle functioning and the activation of
|| Category of food that is easily used by the body for energy.
|| Anything to do with the heart.
flexible, hollow tube through which fluids enter or leave the body.
A catheter is implanted in the abdomen for peritoneal dialysis.
long duration or recurring often.
renal (kidney) failure
|| Damage to the kidneys that cannot be reversed, usually progressive
that waste products in the blood are removed through dialysis
expressed in milliliters/minute.
process of forming a blood clot.
|| Strength of a solution.
| Congestive heart failure
condition in which the body is fluid overloaded, causing the heart
to pump less effectively. Congestive heart failure may result in
excess fluid in the lungs.
|| Allowing microorganisms to contact a sterile area, making it
unsterile and creating potential for infection.
| Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis (CAPD)
form of dialysis in which dialysate drains into and out of the
peritoneal cavity by gravity several times a day.
| Continuous Cycling Peritoneal Dialysis (CCPD)
form of dialysis that uses a cycling machine to infuse and drain
dialysate from the peritoneal cavity several times during the night
while the patient sleeps.
|| Involuntary muscle contractions and relaxation.
of the many waste products in the blood produced by normal tissue
breakdown and removed by the kidneys, or by dialysis in patients
with renal failure.
|| Testing of blood and tissues to check compatibility of donor kidney
and patient for kidney transplantation.
sample of organisms taken from a site to identify the specific
organism causing infection.
|| Solution containing water and chemicals (electrolytes) that passes
through the artificial kidney to remove excess fluids and wastes
from the blood, also call “bath.”
|| Cleansing the body of unwanted toxins, waste products and excess
fluid by filtering them from the blood through a semipermeable
| Dialysate flow rate
at which dialysate flows through the dialyzer.
|| Regimen based on the individual needs of the renal failure patient
to reestablish physical balance.
|| Passage of particles from an area of high concentration to a
solution of low concentration resulting in an even distribution of
agent which will kill most microorganisms (bacteria, viruses) it
weight of a dialysis patient when excess fluid has been removed.
Also known as “ideal weight”.
|| Length of time dialysis solution stays in the peritoneal cavity
during peritoneal dialysis.
|| Swelling or puffiness due to buildup of excess fluid in the tissues
most noticeable in ankles, hands and face. Occurs in dialysis
patients as a result of excess fluid intake or decreased
| End-stage-renal disease (ESRD)
|| Stage of kidney damage that requires dialysis or kidney
transplantation to maintain life. Another term for permanent kidney
process of changing used dialysate for fresh solution in peritoneal
area where the needles enter or exit through the access. Also, where
a peritoneal dialysis catheter or subclavian catheter exits the
surgical joining of an artery and a vein so that the vein enlarges
due to the flow of arterial blood. A fistula is a type of access,
also known as an 'arteriovenous fistula'.
|| Point at which extra fluid in the body causes edema, difficulty in
breathing or extra strain on the heart.
|| Inflammation of the kidney’s filters (glomeruli).
dialysis, surgical placement of a material between an artery and
vein to create a circulatory access for hemodialysis. Graft also
refers to a transplanted kidney.
|| Ration of red blood cells to whole blood.
|| Removal of excess fluids and waste products by passage of blood
through an artificial kidney.
protein portion of the red blood cell which carries oxygen from
lungs to body tissues.
anticoagulant given in hemodialysis to slow clotting time so that
blood will not clot in the lines or dialyzer.
|| Inflammation of the liver caused by virus, bacteria, toxic agents or
| Hepatitis B surface antigen
|| Substance that indicates infection with hepatitis B. Testing for
this antigen is performed frequently on clinic staff and patients.
| Immunosuppressive drug
of medication that suppresses the body’s immune response. Given to
transplant recipients to help prevent rejection of the transplanted
|| Invasion of the body by disease - producing organisms and the
reaction of the tissues to their presence.
|| Localized heat, redness, swelling and pain; usually as a result of
infection or irritation.
|| Within a vein.
|| Clearance X time / volume. Measure that indicates how well waste
products have been removed by dialysis treatment.
bean-shaped organs located at the back of the abdominal cavity, one
on each side of the spinal column. Kidneys maintain the body’s
chemical balance by excreting waste products and excess fluid in the
form of urine.
|| 1,000 grams, one kilogram equals 2.2 pounds.
basic unit of volume measurement in metric system, approximately
equal to one quart.
layer of tissue or material, usually an outer layer or lining of
organs or group of organs.
|| Physical and chemical changes occurring within the body in order to
|| Inorganic substances necessary to normal body function, but toxic in
|| (noun) Electronic device used to check, remind, or warn.(verb)
Watching patients during their treatments, or checking the adequacy
of treatments over time.
|| Upset stomach.
|| Surgical removal of the kidney.
|| Doctor specializing in kidney disorders.
of kidney which maintains the body’s chemical balance. There are
approximately one million nephrons in each kidney.
disease of the nerves.
| Nocturnal Hemodialysis
hemodialysis done at night while you sleep.
|| Movement of fluid through a semipermeable membrane to achieve equal
concentration on both sides of the membrane.
|| Irregular beating of the heart.
| Parathyroid glands
|| Small glands located in the neck that produce a hormone which
regulates calcium and phosphorus levels in the blood.
|| Surgical removal of the parathyroid glands. Can be partial or
|| Inflammation of the pericardium, the sac-like structure surrounding
combination of CCPD and CAPD mostly used by PD patients who need
| Peritoneal Cavity
|| Space surrounding the abdominal organs located under the abdominal
| Peritoneal Dialysis
form of dialysis in which the lining of the abdomen, the peritoneal
membrane, acts as a natural filter.
| Peritoneum (or Peritoneal membrane)
|| Smooth, semipermeable membrane that covers the abdominal organs and
lines the abdominal cavity.
|| Infection of the peritoneal cavity that must be treated by a doctor.
| Phosphate Binders
|| Medications that bind with dietary phosphorus so that it may be
eliminated from the body; helps keep calcium and phosphorus in
balance for dialysis patients.
element necessary for normal body functions, especially bone
| Polycystic Kidney Disease
|| Hereditary disease involving growth of cysts on kidney tissue.
element needed by the body for normal muscle and nerve function and
|| Group of nitrogen containing compounds found in the body that are
essential to life.
|| Throbbing sensation felt in the arteries in time with the heartbeat.
| Red Blood Cell
of blood cell containing hemoglobin which carries oxygen to the
|| Referring to the kidneys.
| Semipermeable membrane
|| Material that allows only fluids and small particles to flow
|| Element found in the body that helps regulate the body’s fluid
|| Totally free from any living microorganisms.
|| Pulsation (vibration or buzzing) felt over the graft or fistula.
|| Matching the blood cells of potential transplant recipients with
|| Waste product in the blood or any substance that is poisonous.
reduction ratio. Percentage based on how much blood urea nitrogen
(BUN) was removed during a dialysis treatment. Indicates how
effectively urea and other waste products have been removed.
|| Process used to remove excess fluid from the blood during dialysis.
|| Nitrogenous waste product formed during the breakdown of protein in
|| Buildup of waste products in the blood due to the inability of the
kidneys to excrete them.
|| Pertaining to blood vessels.
|| Blood vessel that carries blood from the parts of the body back to
|| Referring to veins and the flow of blood to the heart.
that carries blood from the dialyzer back to the body.
| Waste products
|| Substances formed from the breakdown of protein in foods and from
normal muscle tissue.
of blood cell that fights infection in the body.